Business Overview (Introduction)
Automotive industry is the key driver of any growing economy. It plays a pivotal role in country's rapid economic and industrial development. It caters to the requirement of equipment for basic industries like steel, non-ferrous metals, fertilisers, refineries, petrochemicals, shipping, textiles, plastics, glass, rubber, capital equipments, logistics, paper, cement, sugar, etc. It facilitates the improvement in various infrastructure facilities like power, rail and road transport. Due to its deep forward and backward linkages with almost every segment of the economy, the industry has a strong and positive multiplier effect and thus propels progress of a nation. The automotive industry comprises of the automobile and the auto component sectors. It includes passenger cars; light, medium and heavy commercial vehicles; multi-utility vehicles such as jeeps, scooters, motor-cycles, three wheelers, tractors, etc; and auto components like engine parts, drive and transmission parts, suspension and braking parts , electricals, body and chassis parts; etc
In India, automotive is one of the largest industries showing impressive growth over the years and has been significantly making increasing contribution to overall industrial development in the country. Presently, India is the world's second largest manufacturer of two wheelers, fifth largest manufacturer of commercial vehicles as well as largest manufacturer of tractors. It is the fourth largest passenger car market in Asia as well as a home to the largest motor cycle manufacturer. The installed capacity of the automobile sector has been 9,540,000 vehicles, comprising 1,590,000 four wheelers (including passenger cars) and 7,950,000 two and three wheelers. The sector has shown great advances in terms of development, spread, absorption of newer technologies and flexibility in the wake of changing business scenario.
The Indian automotive industry has made rapid strides since delicensing and opening up of the sector in 1991. It has witnessed the entry of several new manufacturers with the state-of-art technology, thus replacing the monopoly of few manufacturers. At present, there are 15 manufacturers of passenger cars and multi-utility vehicles, 9 manufacturers of commercial vehicles, 16 of two/ three wheelers and 14 of tractor, besides 5 manufacturers of engines. The norms for foreign investment and import of technology have also been liberalised over the years for manufacture of vehicles. At present, 100% foreign direct investment (FDI) is permissible under the automatic route in this sector, including passenger car segment. The import of technology for technology upgradation on royalty payment of 5% without any duration limit and lump sum payment of USD 2 million is also allowed under automatic route in this sector. The Indian automotive industry has already attained a turnover of Rs. 1,65,000 crore (34 billion USD) and has provided direct and indirect employment to 1.31 crore people in the country.
The growth of Indian middle class, with increasing purchasing power, along with strong macro-economic fundamentals have attracted the major auto manufacturers to Indian market. The market linked exchange rate, well established financial market, stable policy governance work and availability of trained manpower have also shifted new capacities and flow of capital to the auto industry of India. All these have not only enhanced competition in auto companies and resulted in multiple choices for Indian consumers at competitive costs, but have also ensured a remarkable improvement in the industry's productivity, which is one of the highest in Indian manufacturing sector.